Actovegin is a multi-component drug derived from calf blood. It is primarily used to treat cerebrovascular disorders and promote recovery from injuries. Some athletes use Actovegin as performance-enhancing drug, although there is a few evidence of its efficacy as a performance-enhancer.
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Actovegin is a calf blood hemodialysate used for many different clinical applications.
It is used in post-soviet and some European countries to promote injury recovery, and treat various peripheral and cerebral vascular diseases.
The exact mechanism of action of Actovegin is not fully understood as it is multi-component drug, and each component has its own action. Actovegin contains both inorganic components such as blood electrolytes, and organic compounds such as amino acids and nucleosides. About 2% of the dry weight of drug consist of low-molecular weight peptides and nucleic acid derivatives.
In sport, Actovegin is used by many athletes worldwide to treat sport injuries and as performance-enhancing drug. In 2011 pilot study performed on soccer players, players in the Actovegin treatment group were able to return to play 8 days earlier, compared to the players receiving physiotherapy alone. It is suggested that Actovegin may improve physical performance by enhancing oxygen consumption and glucose uptake. However, there is no evidence that Actovegin improves physical performance significantly.
The drug also has insulin-like effect on glucose uptake, possibly mediated by inositol-phospho-oligosaccharides in its composition, and is shown to improve symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. In double-blind, placebo-controlled 2009 clinical trial performed on 567 patients with type 2 diabetes, Actovegin significantly improved Total symptoms score, vibration perception threshold, and NIS-LL sensory function, without increasing risk of adverse events. However, it should be noted that in this trial Actovegin was used long-term and in very high dosage (compared to the dosage and treatment duration as suggested by the instruction).
There is a generic version of Actovegin in different dosage form, called Solcoseryl. Solcoseryl also contains calf blood dialysate as an active ingredient. It is primarily known as a topical gel for wound healing.
Actovegin is used in different forms – pills, solution for injection, and topical gel. They have slightly different indications for use, and as general rule, injections has significantly better bioavailability and efficacy. Solcoseryl, a generic version of Actovegin, also available in eye gel and dental paste forms.
The indications for Actovegin injections use are:
- Metabolic and vascular brain diseases (including ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury)
- Peripheral (arterial and venous) vascular diseases and their implications (arterial angiopathy [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiopathy], trophic ulcers, and diabetic neuropathy)
- Wounds recovery (ulcers of various origins, burns, bedsores), impairment of wound healing process
- Skin and mucous membrane care during radiotherapy
The indications for Actovegin pills use are:
- Complex therapy of metabolic and vascular diseases of the brain (cerebrovascular diseases, dementia, traumatic brain injuries).
- Peripheral (arterial and venous) vascular diseases and their implications.
You can read more about Actovegin and its pharmacology here.
Actovegin® is marketed under different brands and generic names, and comes in different dosage forms:
|Brand name||Manufacturer||Country||Dosage form|
|Actovegin (Takeda GmbH||Takeda GmbH||Austria||injection|
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Dosage and Administration
Doses and route of administration depend on the evidence and the severity of the disease. Inside appoint 1-2 pills 3 times / day before meals. The tablet is not chewed, washed down with a small amount of water. The duration of treatment is 4-6 weeks.
Allergic reactions: rarely (with indications in the history of hypersensitivity reactions) - urticaria, edema, flushing, increased sweating, fever, shock.
hypersensitivity to the components of the drug or to similar drugs.
Carefully the drug should be prescribed for stage II-III heart failure, pulmonary edema, oliguria, anuria, hyperhydration, during pregnancy and lactation.
Drug interaction drug Actovegin not installed.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Use of the drug Actovegin® during pregnancy and lactation is allowed, but caution should be exercised.
With the development of allergic reactions taking Actovegin should be discontinued. If necessary, conduct standard therapy of allergic reactions (antihistamines and / or corticosteroids). Experimental studies have shown that Actovegin does not cause toxic effects and adverse reactions, even in doses that are 30-40 times higher than the dose for humans.
Symptoms: undesirable manifestations on the part of the digestive system. Treatment: symptomatic therapy.
- Brand name: Actovegin
- Active ingredient: Deproteinized hemoderivat blood of calves
- Dosage form: pills, coated greenish-yellow, round, biconvex, shiny.
- Manufacturer: Takeda GmbH
- Country of Origin: Russia
- A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial of Actovegin Against Acute Oral Mucositis Induced by Chemo-radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
- Actovegin®: a biological drug for more than 5 decades
- Erratum to: Actovegin®: a biological drug for more than 5 decades
- Experience in the use of actovegin in the treatment of patients with cognitive disorders in the acute period of stroke
- Influence of Actovegin on proliferation of transplanted cell lines
- Neuroprotective and Anti-Oxidative Effects of the Hemodialysate Actovegin on Primary Rat Neurons in Vitro
- Stimulating effect of cord blood fraction below 5 kDa and actovegin on cell growth of permanent cell lines
- Erratum to: “Stimulating effect of cord blood fraction below 5 kDa and actovegin on cell growth of permanent cell lines”
- Einfluß von Actovegin®auf Sinneszellen von Cochlea und Vestibularorgan des Meerschweinchens unter Hypoxiebedingungen
- A prospective, randomized, multi-center trial to investigate Actovegin in prevention and treatment of acute oral mucositis caused by chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- P.2.017 Use of actovegin in complex care ofresidual-organic psychosyndrome in children
- The effect of ACTOVEGIN in multiple sclerosis patients.
- Elimination of the delayed postischemic energy deficit in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of aged rats with a dried, deproteinized blood extract (Actovegin®)
- Pleiotropic neuroprotective and metabolic effects of Actovegin's mode of action
- Topographic Mapping of Cognitive Event-Related Potentials in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with the Hemoderivative Actovegin in Age-Associated Memory Impairment
- Actovegin reduces the ROS level in blood samples of heart failure patients and diminishes necrosis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells
- Pharmacoeconomic Aspects of Actovegin and Solcoseryl in the Treatment of Russian Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Accidents
- Treatment of Symptomatic Polyneuropathy With Actovegin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
- Actovegin reduces the hydrogen peroxide-induced cell apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma by means of p38MAPK and PI-3K inhibition
- Treatment with Actovegin improves spatial learning and memory in rats following transient forebrain ischaemia
- A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Actovegin in Patients with Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment: ARTEMIDA Study Design
- Our Experience on Actovegin, is it Cutting Edge?
- Treatment with Actovegin® Improves Sensory Nerve Function and Pathology in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats via Mechanisms Involving Inhibition of PARP Activation
- No Effect of Intravenous Actovegin® on Peak Aerobic Capacity