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Encephabol is a nootropic drug. Pyritinol increases pathologically reduced metabolism in the brain by increasing the uptake and utilization of glucose, increases the metabolism of nucleic acids and the release of acetylcholine in the synapses of nerve cells, improves cholinergic transmission between cells of the nervous tissue. It contributes to the stabilization of the cell membrane structure of nerve cells and their function by inhibiting lysosome enzymes, thereby preventing the formation of free radicals.
Pyritinol improves the rheological properties of blood, increases the plasticity of red blood cells by increasing the content of ATP in their membrane, which leads to a decrease in blood viscosity and improve blood flow. Pyritinol, by improving blood circulation in ischemic brain regions, increases their oxygen supply; increases glucose metabolism. As a result, memory performance is improved and impaired metabolic processes in the nervous tissue are restored, which contributes to the full functioning of its cells.
Pyritinol is rapidly absorbed when taken orally. Bioavailability averages 85% (76-93%). The maximum plasma concentration is reached within 30-60 minutes after ingestion of 100 mg pyritinol. The half-life is about 2.5 hours.
Pyritinol metabolizes rapidly. 20-40% of the substance is reversibly bound to plasma proteins. The following substances have been identified as the main metabolites: 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl mercaptomethyl pyridine and 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-5 methyl methyl sulfinylmethyl pyridine. Conjugated metabolites are excreted primarily through the kidneys. The total urinary excretion within 24 hours is 72.4-74.2%. Most of the dose received is excreted during the first 4 hours after administration. With faeces only 5% of the dose is excreted.
When re-oral appointment cumulation is not observed. Toxic concentrations do not develop even with impaired renal function.
Penetrates through the blood-brain barrier, metabolites accumulate mainly in the gray matter of the brain.
Pyritinol crosses the placental barrier. Studies have not revealed teratogenic or embryotoxic activity.
- Symptomatic treatment of chronic disorders of brain function in dementia syndromes with the following leading symptoms: impaired memory, concentration ability and thinking, fatigue, lack of motivation and motivation, affective disorders.
- Primary degenerative dementia, vascular dementia and mixed forms.
- Symptomatic therapy of chronic impairment of mental performance.
- Posttraumatic encephalopathy.
- Cerebral atherosclerosis.
- Consequences of encephalitis.
- Mental retardation, cerebrastenic syndrome, encephalopathy in children.
1 coated tablet contains:
active substance: pyritinol 100 mg.
Excipients: sodium carmellose 7000, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium carboxystarch, lactose monohydrate, powdered cellulose.
shell composition: choline yellow dye 70%, mountain glycolic wax, gelatin, acacia gum, wheat flour, titanium dioxide, kaolin, talc (magnesium hydrosilicate), sucrose.
Pyritinol is marketed under different brands and generic names, and comes in different dosage forms:
|Brand name||Manufacturer||Country||Dosage form|
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Dosage and Administration
Take during or after meals. For sleep disorders, the last daily dose should not be taken in the evening or at night.
Adults - 2 tsp. Suspension 3 times a day (600 mg of pyritinol dihydrochloride monohydrate per day).
Newborns - From the 3rd day after birth, 1 ml of suspension per day for a month, the dose is taken in the morning. Starting from 2 months after birth, this dose is increased by 1 ml every week until the daily dose reaches 5 ml (1 tsp).
Children from 1 year - 1 / 2–1 teaspoonful of suspension 1–3 times a day (from 50 to 300 mg of pyritinol dihydrochloride monohydrate per day, depending on the indication).
Children from 7 years - 1 / 2–2 teaspoons of suspension 1–3 times a day (from 50–100 to 300–600 mg of pyritinol dihydrochloride monohydrate per day depending on the indication).
The duration of treatment depends on the clinical picture of the disease. As a rule, therapeutic success is achieved after 3-4 weeks of treatment. The optimum effect usually occurs after 6–12 weeks. The duration of treatment should be at least 8 weeks, and if necessary, it can be continued. In newborns with a high risk of perinatal CNS development, the average duration of treatment is on average 6 months. After 3 months, you should check for indications for further treatment.
When taking encephabol in accordance with the indications and in the recommended doses of side effects should not be expected.
Sometimes - hypersensitivity reactions of varying severity: rash on the skin or mucous membranes, itching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, sleep disturbance.
Rarely - increased excitability, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, fatigue, change in taste, impaired liver function (increased levels of transaminases, cholestasis).
Absolute: Hypersensitivity to pyritinol.
Relative: a history of kidney disease, marked impaired liver function, marked changes in the peripheral blood pattern, acute autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, myasthenia, pemphigus.
With the simultaneous use of Encephabol can potentiate the side effects of penicillamine, gold preparations and sulfasalazine. Clinically significant interaction of encephabol with other drugs has not been established.
Pregnancy and Lactation
If necessary, the use of Encephabol during pregnancy or during lactation (breastfeeding) should relate the intended benefits to the mother and the potential risk to the fetus or infant.
Pyritinol penetrates the placental barrier, in small quantities excreted in breast milk.
In experimental studies, the presence of the teratogenic or embryotoxic action of pyritinol has not been established.
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic diseases of the joints, there is a hypersensitivity to compounds that include the SH-group, including to pyritinol. These patients have an increased risk of hypersensitivity reactions, immunopathological reactions, as well as disorders of taste sensitivity and liver function. When treating this category of patients, systematic monitoring of general blood, urine, liver function, and immunological parameters is necessary.
Hypersensitivity reactions to the drug may occur in patients with hypersensitivity to D-penicillamine, since the latter has a similarity to pyritinol in chemical structure (thiol groups).
When using Encephabol for indications, as a rule, there are no restrictions for those activities that require increased attention, quick psychomotor reactions. However, given the likelihood of individual differences in the response of individual patients to the drug, at the beginning of treatment and with increasing doses, the possibility of impairment of the speed of psychomotor reactions should be considered.
Symptoms: increased side effects.
Treatment: gastric lavage, the appointment of activated carbon. If necessary, carry out symptomatic therapy.
- Brand name: Encephabol
- Active ingredient: Pyritinol
- Dosage form: Pills
- Manufacturer: Merck KGaA
- Country of Origin: Russia
- Electrophysiological profile of neurotropics (hydergine, piracetam, pyritinol) in organic brain disease in the aged
- Specificity of action of pyracetam, pyritinol, and cleregil on the transcallosal evoked potential
- Protection against acute ethanol toxicity in mice by zinc aspartate, glycols, levulose and pyritinol
- Pyritinol facilitates the recovery of cortical cholinergic deficits caused by nucleus basalis lesions
- Occupational contact dermatitis due to pyritinol
- Stability-indicating chemometric methods for the determination of pyritinol dihydrochloride
- Durch Pyritinol verursachte VerÄnderungen von Kreislauf und Atmung sowie der SpontanaktivitÄt von Neuronen im Nucleus amygdalae bei Katzen
- The influence of α-tocopherol and pyritinol on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in human lymphocytes
- Pyritinol reduces nociception and oxidative stress in diabetic rats
- The effect of 3-month administration of nootropics (pyritinol, piracetam) and methoxytacrin on the behaviour and brain variables in old rats
- Effects of subchronic administration of pyritinol on receptor deficits and phosphatidylinositol metabolism in the brain of the aged mouse
- Protection of cell proteins against free-radical attack by nootropic drugs: Scavenger effect of pyritinol confirmed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy
- Acute pancreatitis due to pyritinol: An immune-mediated phenomenon
- EEG brain mapping in gerontopsychopharmacology: On protective properties of pyritinol against hypoxic hypoxidosis
- The effect of pyritinol upon P300 topography
- P-9-6 Pyritinol improves tardive dyskinesia in double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial
- Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: The International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions || Pyritinol
- COMPARISON OF PYRITINOL AND AURANOFIN IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
- Psychopharmacological Effects of Pyritinol in Normal Volunteers
- Captopril see Pyritinol/captopril