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Magnesium sulfate - sedative, antispasmodic.
With parenteral administration has a depressant effect on the central nervous system. Depending on the dose, a sedative, hypnotic or anesthetic effect may be observed. Magnesium sulfate has a depressant effect on neuromuscular transmission. Reduces the excitability of the respiratory center, in large doses when administered parenterally can cause respiratory paralysis. Lowers blood pressure, incl. in connection with the general sedative effect (the effect is more pronounced in hypertension). Magnesium sulfate is excreted by the kidneys, diuresis is enhanced in the elimination process.
Calcium ion antagonists are calcium ions. The decrease in calcium in the blood is accompanied by increased action of magnesium.
- hypertensive crisis;
- late toxicosis of pregnant women;
- convulsive syndrome.
- relief of status epilepticus (as part of complex therapy).
Active substance: magnesium sulfate.
Magnesium sulfate is marketed under different brands and generic names, and comes in different dosage forms:
|Brand name||Manufacturer||Country||Dosage form|
|Magnesium sulfate||Tula pharmaceutical factory||Russia||powder|
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Dosage and Administration
IM orIV. Magnesium sulfate is used only on prescription. Doses specify, taking into account the therapeutic effect and the concentration of magnesium sulfate in the serum.
In hypertensive crises, intramuscular or intravenous injections are administered slowly, 5–20 ml of 25% solution. In case of convulsive syndrome, spastic states, the drug is prescribed in intramuscular administration by 5–20 ml of a 25% solution in combination with anxiolytic agents, which have a pronounced central muscle relaxant effect.
In case of acute poisoning with mercury, arsenic, tetraethyl lead, 5–10 ml of 5–10% magnesium sulfate solution is injected intravenously.
Early signs and symptoms of hypermagnesemia: bradycardia, diplopia, a sudden "flush" of blood to the skin of the face, headache, lowering blood pressure, nausea, shortness of breath, speech blurring, vomiting, asthenia.
Signs of hypermagnesemia, ranked in order of increasing serum Mg2 + concentration: decrease in deep tendon reflexes (2-3.5 mmol / l), prolongation of the PQ interval and expansion of the QRS complex on the ECG (2.5-5 mmol / l), loss of deep tendon reflexes (4 -5 mmol / l), inhibition of the respiratory center (5-6.5 mmol / l), impaired cardiac conduction (7.5 mmol / l), cardiac arrest (12.5 mmol / l).
In addition, hyperhidrosis, anxiety, deep sedation, polyuria, uterine atony.
- hypersensitivity to the drug;
- AV blockade;
- conditions accompanied by calcium deficiency, depression of the respiratory center.
Enhances the effect of other drugs that depress the central nervous system.
Cardiac glycosides increase the risk of conduction disturbances and AV blockade (especially with simultaneous intravenous injection of Ca2 + salts).
Muscle relaxants and nifedipine increase the neuromuscular blockade.
When combined use of magnesium sulfate for parenteral administration with other vasodilators may increase the hypotensive effect.
Barbiturates, narcotic analgesics, antihypertensive drugs increase the likelihood of inhibition of the respiratory center.
Violates the absorption of antibiotics of the tetracycline group, weakens the effect of streptomycin and tobramycin.
Ca2 + salts reduce the effect of magnesium sulfate.
Pharmaceutically compatible (flocculates) with preparations Ca2 +, ethanol (in high concentrations), carbonates, bicarbonates and phosphates of alkali metals, salts of arsenic acid, barium, strontium, clindamycin phosphate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, polymyxin B sulfate, procaine hydrochloride, salicylates and tartrates . At concentrations of Mg2 + above 10 mmol / ml in mixtures for complete parenteral nutrition, the separation of fat emulsions is possible.
If necessary, simultaneous IV the introduction of salts of Mg2 + and Ca2 + they are injected into different veins.
It is possible to use magnesium sulfate for the relief of epileptic status (as part of complex therapy).
Patients with severe impaired renal function should not receive more than 20 g of magnesium sulfate (81 mmol Mg2 +) within 48 h; patients with oliguria or severe impaired renal function should not be given IV sulfate too quickly. It is recommended to control the concentration of Mg2 + in serum (should be no higher than 0.8-1.2 mmol / l), diuresis (at least 100 ml / 4 h), respiratory rate (at least 16 / min), blood pressure.
When parenteral administration should be particularly careful not to create toxic concentrations of the drug. Elderly patients often require dose reduction (impaired renal function).
The solution for injection can also be used for oral administration (as a laxative drug).
Symptoms: possible respiratory depression, depression of the functions of the central nervous system, up to the development of anesthesia.
Treatment: As an antidote for an overdose of magnesium sulfate, calcium preparations — calcium chloride or calcium gluconate — are used.
- Active ingredient: Magnesium sulfate
- Secondary nucleation of magnesium sulfate by fluid shear
- Solubility of Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate in the Presence of Trace Quantities of Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate in Water
- Electric studies on polyvinyl alcohol with additions of magnesium sulfate
- Increased expression of glucose transporter 3 in gerbil brains following magnesium sulfate treatment and focal cerebral ischemic injury
- ChemInform Abstract: A One-Pot Method for the Efficient Preparation of Aromatic Nitriles from Aldehydes Using Ammonia, Magnesium Sulfate, and Manganese Dioxide.
- ChemInform Abstract: Ammonium Sulfate—Magnesium Selective Reduction of N-2-Nitrophenylimidates: Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles.
- Anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate Mediated Solvent-Free Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones at Ambient Temperature.
- ChemInform Abstract: Magnesium Sulfate as an Efficient and Very Cheap Reagent for the Preparation of Bis(indolyl)methanes.
- ChemInform Abstract: Microwave-Assisted Reduction of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds in Solid State Using Sodium Borohydride Supported on Magnesium Sulfate (NaBH4/MgSO4×7H2O).
- ChemInform Abstract: Sodium Magnesium Sulfate Decahydrate, Na2Mg(SO4)2·10H2O, a New Sulfate Salt.
- ChemInform Abstract: Facile Synthesis of α-Amino Phosphonates in Water by Kabachnik—Fields Reaction Using Magnesium Dodecyl Sulfate.
- Erratum: Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water
- Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water
- Facile synthesis of α-amino phosphonates in water by Kabachnik–Fields reaction using magnesium dodecyl sulfate
- Theoretical understanding on the v1-SO band perturbed by the formation of magnesium sulfate ion pairs
- Simultaneous solvent extraction of cobalt and magnesium in the presence of nickel from sulfate solutions by Ionquest 801
- Maternal hypoxia during pregnancy induces fetal neurodevelopmental brain damage: Partial protection by magnesium sulfate
- Effects of polyethylene glycol and magnesium sulfate administration on clinically relevant neurological outcomes after spinal cord injury in the rat
- Phase solubility study of solid species formed by magnesium aluminate from aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions
- Magnesium lauryl sulfate—soluble lubricant
- Magnesium lauryl sulfate in tableting: Effect on ejection force and compressibility
- Determination of magnesium in magnesium sulfate and solution of magnesium citrate
- Corrosion behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy in sodium sulfate solution
- Study of the Fire Performance of Magnesium Hydroxide Sulfate Hydrate Whisker Flame Retardant Polyethylene