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Novocaine - local anesthetic. Violates the generation and conduction of nerve impulses mainly in non-myelin fibers. Being a weak base, interacts with receptors of membrane sodium channels, blocks the flow of sodium ions, displaces calcium from receptors located on the inner surface of the membrane.
Changes the action potential in the membranes of nerve cells without a pronounced effect on the resting potential. Antiarrhythmic effect is associated with an increase in the effective refractory period, a decrease in excitability and automatism of the myocardium.
When absorbed or directly injected into the blood, it reduces the formation of acetylcholine and the excitability of cholinergic systems, has a ganglion-blocking effect, reduces spasm of smooth muscles, inhibits the excitability of the myocardium and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.
It has analgesic and anti-shock activity, hypotensive and antiarrhythmic action. Eliminates the downward inhibitory effects of the brainstem reticular formation. Inhibits polysynaptic reflexes. In large doses can cause seizures.
It has a short anesthetic activity (the duration of infiltration anesthesia is 0.5-1 h). To reduce systemic effects, toxicity, and prolongation of the effect, it is used in combination with vasoconstrictors (adrenaline). With increasing concentration of solutions, it is recommended to reduce the total dose.
It is effective (with intramuscular injection) in elderly patients in the early stages of diseases associated with functional disorders of the central nervous system (hypertension, spasms of the coronary vessels and brain vessels, etc.).
- infiltration, conduction, epidural and spinal anesthesia;
- vagosympathetic and perirenal blockade;
- pain syndrome in gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
Active substances: procain hydrochloride 5 g
Novocaine (Procaine) is marketed under different brands and generic names, and comes in different dosage forms:
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Dosage and Administration
IM - 5–10 ml of 1–2% solution 3 times a week for a month, after which a 10-day break is taken.
For infiltration anesthesia, 0.25–0.5% solutions are used, for conductive and epidural - 2% solution; inside - 1/2 tsp (with pain).
From the central and peripheral nervous system: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, motor restlessness, loss of consciousness, convulsions, trismus, tremor, visual and auditory disturbances, nystagmus, horse tail syndrome (paralysis of the legs, paresthesia), paralysis of the respiratory muscles, impaired sensory and motor conduction, paralysis respiratory center often develops with subarachnoid anesthesia.
- hypersensitivity (including to para-aminobenzoic acid and other local anesthetics, esters),
- children's age (up to 18 years).
Local anesthetics increase the inhibitory effect on the central nervous system of other drugs. Anticoagulants (ardeparin sodium, dalteparin sodium, danaparoid sodium, enoxaparin sodium, heparin, warfarin) increase the risk of bleeding.
Pregnancy and Lactation
During periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding, the drug should be used when the benefit to the mother exceeds the risk to the fetus or child.
During the period of treatment, care must be taken when driving vehicles and engaging in other potentially hazardous activities that require increased concentration and psychomotor speed.
Symptoms: pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, increased nervous irritability, cold sweat, tachycardia, decrease in blood pressure to almost collapse, tremor, convulsions, apnea, methemoglobinemia, respiratory depression, sudden cardiovascular, respiratory depression, sudden hemorrhage, apnea, methemoglobinemia, respiratory depression, sudden cardio-vascular
The effect on the central nervous system is manifested by a sense of fear, hallucinations, convulsions, motor agitation. In cases of overdose, the administration of the drug should be immediately stopped. When conducting local anesthesia, the site of injection can be tipped with adrenaline.
Treatment: general resuscitation measures that include inhalation of oxygen, if necessary, carrying out artificial ventilation of the lungs.
If convulsions continue for more than 15–20 sec, they are stopped by intravenous administration of thiopental (100–150 mg) or diazepam (5–20 mg).
In case of arterial hypotension and / or depression of the myocardium, ephedrine (15-30 mg) is injected intravenously, in severe cases, detoxification and symptomatic therapy.
In the event of intoxication after injection of novocaine into the muscles of the leg or arm, an urgent imposition of the harness is recommended to reduce the subsequent flow of the drug into the bloodstream.
- Brand name: Novocaine
- Active ingredient: Procaine
- Dosage form: Injection.
- Manufacturer: Organics
- Country of Origin: Russia