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Zovirax is an antiviral drug, a synthetic analogue of the purine nucleoside that has the ability to inhibit in vitro and in vivo replication of Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 viruses, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). In cell culture, acyclovir has the most pronounced antiviral activity against Herpes simplex type 1, then in order of decreasing activity follow: Herpes simplex type 2, Varicella zoster, EBV and CMV.
The effect of acyclovir on viruses is highly selective. Acyclovir is not a substrate for the thymidine kinase enzyme of uninfected cells; therefore, it is of low toxicity to mammalian cells. Thymidine kinase of cells infected with Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 viruses, Varicella zoster, EBV and CMV, turns acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleoside analogue, which is then sequentially converted to diphosphate and triphosphate under the action of cellular enzymes. The inclusion of acyclovir triphosphate in the chain of viral DNA and the subsequent chain termination block further replication of viral DNA.
In patients with severe immunodeficiency, prolonged or repeated courses of therapy with acyclovir can lead to the formation of resistant strains, and therefore further treatment with acyclovir may be ineffective. Most of the isolated strains with reduced sensitivity to acyclovir showed a relatively low content of viral thymidine kinase, a violation of the structure of viral thymidine kinase or DNA polymerase. The effect of acyclovir on strains of the Herpes simplex virus in vitro can also lead to the formation of less sensitive strains. The correlation between the sensitivity of Herpes simplex virus strains to acyclovir in vitro and the clinical efficacy of the drug has not been established.
It was shown that intravenous administration of Zovirax in high doses reduces the frequency of occurrence and retards the development of cytomegalovirus infection. If, after such infusion therapy, treatment with acyclovir is administered for oral administration in high doses for 6 months, then mortality and the incidence of viremia will decrease.
It has been shown that high doses of intravenous Zovirax reduce the frequency of occurrence and delay the development of CMV infection. If, after infusion therapy with Zovirax at a high dose, Zovirax is administered for oral administration at a high dose for 6 months, then mortality and the incidence of viremia are reduced.
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Dosage and Administration
Apply the preparation with a thin layer on the affected skin 5 times a day (every 4 hours), except for night time. The treatment duration is at least 5 days
Do not use the drug for more than 5 days. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor. Used Only for external use in adults and children over 12 years old. The cream can be applied ONLY WHEN THE HERPES SKIN LIP. Do not apply the drug to the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes. Do not use for the treatment of genital herpes. Do not use the drug in patients with immunodeficiency, because they have a high risk of developing resistance to acyclovir
Hypersensitivity to acyclovir, valacyclovir, hydrocortisone and other components of the drug;
skin lesions caused by other viruses, fungal, bacterial skin diseases, and parasitic skin infections;
Skin tumors, rosacea, acne vulgaris, perioral dermatitis;
Children's age up to 12 years.
To achieve the maximum therapeutic effect and prevent the formation of blisters on the skin, it is necessary to begin using the drug when the first signs of the disease appear.
- Brand name: Zovirax Duo-Active
- Active ingredient: Acyclovir, hydrocortisone
- Dosage form: Cream for external use.
- Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline
- Country of Origin: Great Britain
- Hypersensitivity response to the medicinal product "Zorex": clinical experience
- A randomised controlled study of intravenous acyclovir (Zovirax®) against placebo in adults with chickenpox
- Allergic contact dermatitis to Zovirax® cream
- Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax® contact allergy
- Compound allergy to Spectraban® 15 lotion and Zovirax® cream
- Compound allergy to Spectraban® 15 lotion and Zovirax® cream
- Contact dermatitis from Zovirax cream
- Allergic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol in Zovirax cream
- No evidence of contact sensitization to acyclovir in acute dermatitis of the lips following local application of Zovirax cream
- Photoallergic contact dermatitis from Zovirax® cream
- A randomized, controlled trial of zovirax* (acyclovlr, ACV) versus netivudine for the treatment of herpes zoster: AP Fiddian* and The International Zoster Study Group, *Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, UK
- Herpesvirus sensitivity to zovirax* (acyclovir, ACV) and other nucleoside analogues: P Collins, G Darby, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, UK
- Lidakol cream vs zovirax ointment for the treatment of experimental dorsal cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) infection in the guinea pig: M.B. McKeough and S.L. Spruance, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA
- Comparison of n-docosanol cream (LIDAKOL™) with acyclovir ointment (Zovirax™) in the inhibition of cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in two guinea pig model systems: J.F. Marcelletti, R.R. McFadden, M.H. Khalil, L.E. Pope, R.C. Davis, L.R. Katz, and D.H. Katz. LIDAK Pharmaceuticals, 11077 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037
- The antiviral efficacy of topical ZOVIRAX® cream or VECTAVIR® cream in HSV-infected mice
- Acyclovir (Zovirax®) pharmacokinetics in Quaker parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus
- Efficacy of 86C (acyclovir) cream 5% compared with Zovirax® (acyclovir) cream 5% in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis
- Failure to alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia with the novel use of an antiviral agent, acyclovir (Zovirax)
- Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo antiherpes virus activities of the acyclic nucleosides, acyclovir (Zovirax) and 9-[(2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylethoxy)methyl]guanine (BWB759U)
- Inverse analytical supercritical fluid extraction of zovirax ointment 5%
- Efficacies of Topical Formulations of Foscarnet and Acyclovir and of 5-Percent Acyclovir Ointment (Zovirax) in a Murine Model of Cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection
- Assess renal function prior to ‘Zovirax’ therapy in the elderly
- FDA clear ‘Zovirax’ for chickenpox