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Oxytocin is uterotonic.
Strengthens the permeability of the myometrial cell membranes to ions, increases its excitability and causes and strengthens the contractions of the smooth muscles of the uterus.
Stimulates lactation, contributing to the reduction of myeepithelial cells of the mammary alveoli.
- The initiation of labor during prolonged pregnancy;
- stimulation and stimulation of labor in case of premature rupture of amniotic fluid, in case of primary or secondary birth weakness;
- cesarean section (during the operation);
- management of childbirth in pelvic presentation, hypotension or atony of the uterus after childbirth, abortion (including termination of pregnancy for longer periods);
- lactostasis in the early postpartum period, painful premenstrual syndrome, accompanied by edema, weight gain.
1 ml of solution contains:
Active ingredient: oxytocin;
Excipients: glacial acetic acid; chlorbutanol hemihydrate; ethanol (96%); water for injections.
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Dosage and Administration
Intramuscularly, intravenously (one-time injection, drip), into the wall or vaginal part of the cervix; intranasally.At labor induction, intramuscularly - 1 IU at intervals of 30–60 minutes (depending on the reaction of the uterus);more appropriate - intravenous drip (10–30 drops per minute) - 1–3 IU in 300–500 ml of 5% glucose solution (under control of the frequency of uterine contractions and fetal heartbeats) before the end of labor and after separation of the afterbirth. For stimulation of labor, intramuscularly - at 0.5–1 IU with an interval of 30–60 minutes, it is possible intravenously drip (as for labor induction), depending on the obstetric situation (opening of the uterine mouth, etc.).During childbirth in pelvic presentation - 2–5 IU each.With hypotension and uterine atony - 5–10 IU, intravenously, in 10–20 ml of 40% glucose solution.To stimulate lactation, intramuscularly or intranasally (using a pipette) - 0.5 IU 5 minutes before feeding; If necessary, repeat the injection.With premenstrual syndrome - intranasally, from the 20th day of the cycle to 1 day of menstruation.
Nausea, vomiting, arrhythmia, incl. fetus bradycardia (mother and fetus); hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage or hypotension and shock; water retention (before poisoning) - with long-term intravenous infusion; allergic reactions.
Hypersensitivity, clinically narrow pelvis, incorrect position of the fetus, full placenta previa, the threat of uterine rupture.
With the introduction of oxytocin 3-4 hours after the use of vasoconstrictors, together with caudal anesthesia, severe arterial hypertension is possible.
Anesthesia with cyclopropane, halothane may change the cardiovascular action of oxytocin, with unanticipated development of arterial hypotension, sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular rhythm in the woman during anesthesia.
Pregnancy and Lactation
In the first trimester of pregnancy, oxytocin is used only for spontaneous or induced abortions. Numerous data on the use of oxytocin, its chemical structure and pharmacological properties indicate that, subject to the instructions for use, oxytocin does not affect the formation of fetal malformations.
In small amounts, penetrates into breast milk.
When using the drug to stop uterine bleeding, breastfeeding can be started only upon completion of the course of treatment with oxytocin.
Before embarking on the use of oxytocin, the expected beneficial effect of therapy should be compared with the possibility, although rare, of the development of hypertension and tetany of the uterus.
Until the insertion of the fetal head into the pelvic inlet, oxytocin cannot be used to stimulate labor.
Each patient receiving intravenous oxytocin should be kept in the hospital under the constant supervision of experienced professionals who are familiar with the drug and are recognized as qualified in recognizing complications. Immediate medical assistance should be provided, if necessary. During the use of the drug should be constantly monitor uterine contractions, cardiac activity of the woman and the fetus, the blood pressure of the woman in order to avoid complications. If there are signs of hyperactivity of the uterus, oxytocin should be stopped immediately; as a result, the uterine contractions caused by the drug usually subside soon.
With adequate use, oxytocin causes uterine contractions similar to spontaneous labor. Excessive stimulation of the uterus in the event of improper use of the drug is dangerous for both the parturient and the fetus. Even with adequate use of the drug and appropriate observation, hypertensive contractions of the uterus occur when the uterus is sensitive to oxytocin.
Should be considered with the risk of developing afibrinogenemia and increased blood loss.
There are cases of the death of a woman in labor as a result of hypersensitivity reactions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, rupture of the uterus and fetal death for various reasons related to parenteral administration of the drug for induction of labor and stimulation in the first and second periods of labor.
As a result of the antidiuretic effect of oxytocin, the development of overhydration is possible, especially with the use of a constant infusion of oxytocin and the ingestion of fluid.
The drug can be diluted in solutions of sodium lactate, sodium chlorate and glucose. The finished solution should be used in the first 8 hours after preparation. Compatibility studies were performed with 500 ml infusions.
Symptoms: depend mainly on the degree of hyperactivity of the uterus, regardless of the presence of hypersensitivity to the drug. Hyperstimulation with hypertonic and tetanic contractions or with a base tone of ≥15-20 mm aq. Art. between two contractions leads to erratic labor, rupture of the body or cervix, vagina, bleeding in the postpartum period, uteroplacental insufficiency, fetal bradycardia, hypoxia, hypercapnia, compression, birth trauma or death. Hyperhydration with convulsions as a result of the antidiuretic effect of oxytocin is a serious complication and develops with prolonged administration of large doses (40-50 ml / min).
Treatment of overhydration: elimination of oxytocin, limiting fluid intake, using diuretics to force diuresis, intravenous administration of hypertonic saline, correcting electrolyte imbalance, relieving seizures with appropriate doses of barbiturates and providing professional care for a patient in a coma state.
- Active ingredient: Oxytocin
Studies and clinical trials of Oxytocin (Click to expand)
- Immunoreactivity of central vasopressin and oxytocin pathways in microtine rodents: A quantitative comparative study
- Annetocin, an annelid oxytocin-related peptide, induces egg-laying behavior in the earthworm,Eisenia foetida
- Possible functions of oxytocin/vasopressin-superfamily peptides in annelids with special reference to reproduction and osmoregulation
- Co-localization of Rab3B and oxytocin to electron dense granules of the sheep corpus luteum during the estrous cycle
- Oxytocin and oxytocin-analogue F314 inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth of rat and mouse mammary carcinomas
- Oxytocin inhibits the proliferation of MDA-MB231 human breast-cancer cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A
- Presence and significance of oxytocin receptors in human neuroblastomas and glial tumors
- Identification of oxytocin and vasopressin from neurohypophyseal cell culture
- Interaction of oxytocin with Ca2+: I. CD and fluorescence spectral characterization and comparison with vasopressin
- Interaction of oxytocin with Ca2+: II. Proton magnetic resonance and molecular modeling studies of conformations of the hormone and its Ca2+ complex
- Exploration of the conformational space of oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin using the electrostatically driven Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods
- Small molecule ligands for oxytocin and vasopressin receptors
- Activation of oxytocin-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following generalized seizures
- Vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactive neurons and fibers in the forebrain of male and female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
- Vaginal misoprostol vs. concentrated oxytocin plus low-dose prostaglandin E2 for second trimester pregnancy termination
- The release of oxytocin and vasopressin in the neurointermediate lobe of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the wistar-kyoto rat (WKY)
- Oxytocin and vasopressin as candidate genes for psychiatric disorders: Lessons from animal models
- Septal projections to nuclei functioning in oxytocin release
- Immunocytochemical localization of oxytocin and neurophysin in human corpora lutea
- Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3
- Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level
- A novel, [tyrosyl-3,5-3H]oxytocin binding, uterine cell population in the rat
- Distribution of Oxytocin- and Vasopressin-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the Eusocial Mole Rat (Fukomys anselli)
- Papierchromatographische und papierionophoretische Untersuchungen zur Freilegung und Trennung der Hypophysen-Hinterlappen-Hormone Oxytocin und Vasopressin