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Pidotimod stimulates and regulates cellular immunity. Induces maturation and formation of immunocompetent T-lymphocytes in case of their insufficiency, which are assigned the role of coordinators of specific immunity under physiological conditions due to partial replacement or enhancement of the functions of the thymus gland. In addition, pidotimod stimulates macrophages, the main function of which is to capture the antigen and present it on the cell membrane in combination with histocompatibility antigens. The body's ability to counteract infectious agents is expressed in effective specific immune, cellular, and antigen-antibody protective responses.
Pidotimod provides therapeutic effects through an immune stimulating effect on innate immunity and antibody production, on cellular immunity, and on cytokine production.
Pidotimod increases the production of superoxide anions, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NO (bactericidal action), as well as chemotaxis and, accordingly, phagocytosis. The drug also increases the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells.
Pidotimod enhances the functional activity of T-and B-lymphocytes, increases the stimulation of the antigen-antibody reaction and prevents the development of apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, 12-O-tetradecanoylforbol-13-acetate and calcium ionophore A-23I87.
Pidotimod increases the content of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in old rats and the expression of the IL-2 gene in the spleen of rats. In particular, it was shown that pidotimod has an immunostimulating effect in cases of insufficiency of the immune system, as well as its functioning at the physiological level.Pharmacokinetics
Immunostimulating therapy of disorders in the cellular component of the immune system:
- with infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract;
- with urinary tract infections.
It is used both to prevent exacerbations and reduce the duration and severity of individual episodes, and as an adjuvant during antibiotic treatment of acute infections.
Excipients: sodium chloride - 5.6 mg, sodium saccharinate - 5 mg, disodium edetate - 3.5 mg, trometamol - q.s. to pH 6.5, sodium methyl parahydroxybenzoate - 10.3 mg, propyl parahydroxybenzoate sodium - 1.6 mg, sorbitol 70% - 2500 mg, fruit flavoring (with the smell of wild berries) - 21 mg, anthocyanin dye - 5.6 mg, dye crimson (Ponso 4R) - 0.5 mg , purified water - up to 7 ml.
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Dosage and Administration
Instillation in the conjunctival sac. The dosage regimen is set depending on the evidence and the dosage form used.
When applied topically: rarely - headache; with prolonged use - follicular conjunctivitis, eyelid contact dermatitis, marked miosis (1-1.5 mm in diameter).
Eye diseases and conditions in which miosis is undesirable (including after surgery on the eye), iritis, iridocyclitis, hypersensitivity to pilocarpine.
Antagonists of pilocarpine hydrochloride are atropine and other m-anticholinergic agents. With simultaneous use with adrenostimulyatory can be observed antagonism of action (on the diameter of the pupil).
Timolol and mezaton increase the reduction in intraocular pressure, reducing the production of intraocular fluid.
Perhaps the use of pilocarpine in combination with sympathomimetics, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
M-cholino-stimulating activity of pilocarpine is reduced by tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazide derivatives, chlorprotixene, clozapine; intensified - anticholinesterase drugs.
Perhaps the development of bradycardia and lowering blood pressure during general anesthesia with the use of ftorotana (in patients using pilocarpine in eye drops)
Pregnancy and Lactation
Adequate and strictly controlled studies of the safety of pilocarpine in ophthalmology during pregnancy and lactation have not been conducted.
Use with caution in retinal detachment in history and in young patients with high myopia.
With an initial cataract, the miotic effect can cause transient vision loss.
Treatment should be carried out with regular monitoring of intraocular pressure.
Influence on ability to drive motor transport and control mechanisms
Miosis can cause impaired dark adaptation. After instillation of pilocarpine, care must be taken when driving in the dark or in poor light. At the very beginning of treatment, an accommodation spasm may develop in young patients, which may lead to a decrease in visual acuity.
- Brand name: Imunorix
- Active ingredient: Pidotimod
- Dosage form: Solution for oral administration of red-purple color, transparent, with the smell of wild berries.
- Manufacturer: Doppel Pharmaceutici
- Country of Origin: Italy
- Hydrophilic hexapeptide imunofan as a hyperactive regulator of transport proteins for multiple drug resistance
- Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C- and 35S-isotopes
- Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions: An excellent delivery system for improving the oral bioavailability of pidotimod in rats
- PIDOTIMOD, a new immunostimulating dipeptide, studied by molecular mechanics, normal mode analysis and dynamics calculations
- High-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of pidotimod in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
- HILIC-MS-MS for the Quantification of Pidotimod in Human Plasma
- Synergistic immunostimulating activity of pidotimod and red ginseng acidic polysaccharide against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression
- Molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational behaviour of the synthetic dipeptide PIDOTIMOD, a new immunostimulating agent
- Modulating Effects of the Synthetic Thymic Dipeptide Pidotimod on the Immune System in the Aging Rat
- Pidotimod promotes functional maturation of dendritic cells and displays adjuvant properties at the nasal mucosa level
- Evaluation of the adjuvant effect of pidotimod on the immune protection induced by UV-attenuatedToxoplasma gondiiin mouse models
- Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice
- The regulatory peptide pidotimod facilitates M2 macrophage polarization and its function
- Pidotimod: the past and the present
- Modulation of airway epithelial cell functions by Pidotimod: NF-kB cytoplasmatic expression and its nuclear translocation are associated with an increased TLR-2 expression
- Effect of pidotimod, a new immunostimulating agent, on some aspects of immune response. In vitro study
- Pidotimod activity on TNF-? and IL-2 gene expression in old rats infected with
- Bioequivalence evaluation of two formulations of pidotimod using a limited sampling strategy
- Ex vivo evaluation of pidotimod effect on immune response
- Evaluation of the kinetics of the immunomodulating activity of pidotimod on human neutrophils
- Immunopharmacology of pidotimod: Effect on natural killer cell activity and thymocyte cell death
- Basis Set, Level, and Continuum Solvation Effects on the Stability of a Synthetic Dipeptide: PIDOTIMOD
- The in vitro Effect of Pidotimod on Some Immune Functions in Cancer Patients
- Pidotimod a new and useful immunomodulator
- Pidotimod enters its first market